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Aggression

What is it?
Aggressive behavior - one of involuntary ways which the human body "tries" to reduce high internal voltage. Manifestation of rage or aggression can remain sufficient time and disturb the victim and people around.
Signs:
Irritation, discontent, anger (on any even to an insignificant occasion);
Drawing to people around of blows hands or any subjects;
Verbal abuse, abuse;
Muscular tension;
Increase of a blood pressure.
What to do if it appeared nearby?
Minimize quantity of people around.
Give to the victim the chance "to exhaust" (for example, to be uttered or beat a pillow).
To charge work with high physical activity.
Show benevolence. Even if you do not agree with the victim, do not accuse him, and pass an opinion on its actions. Otherwise the aggressive behavior will be directed on you. It is impossible to speak: "That you for the person!". It is necessary to speak: "You awfully are angry, everything wants to carry to you into smithereens. Let's together try find a way out of this situation".
Try to relieve the tension ridiculous comments or actions but only in case it is pertinent.
Aggression can be extinguished by fear of punishment, if:

- there is no purpose to receive benefit from aggressive behavior;
- punishment strict and the probability of its implementation is great.

At the end it would be desirable to tell that often the help and support of people around in time and right after tragic events help the person to cope with a grief, not to get further to a vicious circle of fear, fault and a despair.

Hysteria

Psychological assistance at HYSTERIA
What is it?
For many of us the personality in a condition of a hysterics is the enraged, vigorously gesticulating, shouting person (most often the woman). However such behavior is observed only as a last resort, moreover, it is characteristic not only for women.
Today hysteria is the more generalizing term defining various frustration of behavior which are characterized by a big variety of mental and somatic manifestations. Mental symptoms, characteristic for hysteria: mood swings, emotional instability, superficiality in feelings, excessive tendency to suggestion and auto-suggestion. The behavior of the person is focused on attraction to itself of attention of other people. Paralyzes, convulsive attacks, faints, a tremor, headaches, frustration of perception and the speech can be somatic (physical) symptoms, for example. It is necessary to notice that all these symptoms have one general detail - their emergence cannot be explained with any somatic (physical) factors.
The fit of hysteria lasts some minutes or some hours. Unlike tears, the hysterics is a state which needs to try to be stopped. In this condition of people loses many physical and psychological forces.

Signs:
- the consciousness remains;
- excessive excitement, set of movements, theatrical poses;
- speech emotionally rich, fast;
- shouts, sobbings

Why it happens?
The hysterics happens not at each person. This explosion of emotions is peculiar, as a rule, to creative and irritable people. The hysterics arises to give vent to tension. Usually it collects rather long time. The person keeps external calm for a long time, adequately behaves. And then there is a failure, and the hysterics begins.
The contradiction between desire something and impossibility to satisfy it can become the reason of a hysterics. Especially brightly it is shown at small children. After all at early age they are not able to operate the desires yet.
Sometimes the hysterics can be caused by unexpected strong experience that happens in difficult vital circumstances. Often from own powerlessness and impossibility to change something.
How to help itself?
When there is a hysterics, the best exit for "broken" - to pass a situation through. In other words, it is not necessary to exhaust the hysterics inside and to suppress in itself emotions. It is better to splash out them and, figuratively speaking "to take pleasure in the hysterics". That is it is necessary to be discharged up to the end.
Another matter if the hysterics is close, but for the present is not present it. In that case it is necessary to switch, try to distract on something. The rule here such is - than is stronger internal tension, especially the way of derivation has to be the powerful.
If it appeared nearby?
Surrounding people too are able to help a beginner "to explode" to the person. The main thing - is correctly to work.
Remember, psychological assistance is possible only in a case when the victim realizes the actions. And only in this case:
First, remove the audience, create a quiet situation. Remain with the victim alone if it is not dangerous to you. During emotional explosion let's not to allow to the person do much harm to yourself and the rest. If you see that it is close to inadequate actions, it is necessary to interfere: to secure itself and "hysteric". Clean from its field of vision dangerous and heavy subjects - knives, forks, screw-drivers, figurines.
In - the second, it is necessary to switch its attention or to unexpectedly perfect action which can strongly surprise (it is possible to allow to drop a subject with a roar, sharply to shout on the victim). If rebelled small weight, it is possible to carry it in a bathroom and to put under a shower. Or to put to his temples cold - ice. To splash in a face of cold water. Cooling not only gives the chance to distract from the events. It slows down reactions and consequently, constrains emotions.
Do not persuade him to calm down, be not sorry and do not fall into a hysterics is only will set on the victim. Speak with the victim short phrases, confident tone ("Bitterns of water", "Wash"). Do not indulge desires of the victim. Be indifferent or in general leave somewhere if the scene does not come to an end.
What to do after?
Most of people after emotional splash feel devastated and lost. "Having recovered consciousness" often hardly understand that they did. Many do not remember that did and as behaved at this time.
When the hysterics ends, be not indignant with behavior of the person, do not remind him that occurred. Give to the person a glass of cold water or persuade to smell sal ammoniac. If necessary give it a demulcent - infusion of a hawthorn or some drops of tincture of a pustyrnik. It is possible to give to drink him warm tea. And after that to put to bed.
Surely ask for the help the psychologist or the doctor - the disease can progress.

Nervous trembling

After an extreme situation there is an uncontrollable nervous trembling (the person cannot stop at own will this reaction). So the organism "dumps" tension.
If to stop this reaction, tension remains inside, in a body, and will cause muscular pains, and further can lead to development of such serious diseases, as a hypertension, an ulcer, etc.
Main signs of this state:
• the shiver begins suddenly - right after incident or later some time;
• there is a strong trembling of all body or its separate parts (the person cannot hold small subjects in hands, light a cigarette);
• reaction proceeds long enough (till several o'clock);
• then the person feels strong fatigue and needs rest.
If it appeared nearby?
1. It is necessary to strengthen a shiver.
2. Take the victim for shoulders and it is strong, sharply shake.
3. Continue to talk to it, differently he can apprehend your actions as attack.
4. After completion of reaction it is necessary to give to the victim the chance to have a rest. It is desirable to put him to bed.
5. It is impossible:
• to embrace the victim or to press him to itself;
• to cover the victim something warm;
• to calm the victim, to speak that he got it together.
Categorically it is impossible:
1. To embrace the victim or to press him to itself.
2. To cover the victim something warm.
3. To calm the victim, to speak that he got it together.

Crying

What is it?
All of us know that crying is the emotional relaxation facilitating the suppressed stress. Crying is the very first way of communication. For the small child it is reaction on sharply, violently changed living conditions, it is the only way to report to people around about the requirements, to declare themselves on all huge world. Each person at least once in life cried. And everyone knows that after will give vent to tears, at heart becomes a little easier. (The child, and at times and the adult, having cried, quickly fills up.) Similar reaction is caused by physiological processes in an organism. When the person cries, inside he allocates the substances possessing the calming action. It is important when someone with whom it is possible to divide a grief is near.
Remember!
There is no emotional discharge, simplification if the person constrains tears. When the situation is tightened, internal tension can do harm to physical and mental health of the person. Not for nothing speak: "Went crazy from a grief".
Signs:
- the person already cries or is ready to burst out crying
- lips shake
- the feeling is observed
- depression
- unlike a hysterics there is no excitement in behavior
If it appeared nearby?
Tears is a way to splash out the feelings, and it is not necessary to start calming the person if he cries. But, on the other hand, to be near the crying person and not to try to help him - too incorrectly. In what the help has to consist? It is good if you are able to express to the person the support and sympathy. It is not obligatory to do it by words. It is possible to sit down simply nearby, приобнять the person, stroking on the head and a back, to let to it know that you near it that you sympathize and empathize it. Remember expressions "to cry on a shoulder", "to cry in a vest" is about it. It is possible to hold the person by a hand. Sometimes the given helping hand means much more, than hundreds told words.

Fear

Fear - the mental state evolving from a self-preservation instinct as reaction to the valid or imagined danger. The fear has many reasons as subjective (motivation, emotional and strong-willed stability, etc.), and objective order (features of situations, complexity of tasks, hindrances etc.). The fear is shown both in individuals, groups, and big masses.

If  he appeared nearby?
• Do not leave the person alone. It is hard to bear fear alone.
• Speak about what the person is afraid. There is an opinion that such talks strengthens fear, however scientists proved long ago when the person speaks about his fear, that becomes not such strong. Therefore if the person speaks about his fears - speak on this subject.
• Do not try to distract the person with phrases: "Do not think about it", "It is nonsense",  etc.
• Suggest the person to do some breathing exercises, for example:
1. Put a hand on a stomach; slowly inhale, feel as air fills a breast, then a stomach. Hold the breath for 1-2 seconds. Exhale. First falls stomach, then breast. Slowly repeat this exercise 3-4 times;
2. Take a deep breath. Hold the breath for 1-2 seconds. Start to exhale. Exhale slowly and make a pause for 1 - 2 seconds approximately in the middle of an exhalation. Try to exhale as much as possible. Slowly repeat this exercise 3 - 4 times. If it is difficult for person to breathe in such rhythm, join him to breathe together. It will help him to calm down, to feel that you are  nearby.
• If the child is afraid, talk to him about his fears after that it you can play, draw, and sculpt. These occupations will help the child to express the feelings.
• Try to occupy the person with any business. It will distract him from experiences.

Remember - the fear can be useful (if helps to avoid dangerous situations) therefore it is necessary to struggle with it when it prevents to lead normal life.

Stress

Psychological assistance at the STRESS
What is it?
The stress is a reaction of an organism to an overstrain, alarm and daily vanity. When loadings become excessive, the health worsens, there are other symptoms. The word "stress" defines a condition of an organism at which it tries to adapt for difficult living conditions. When the person is exposed to excessive physical or mental tension, its organism at first tries to be protected. But then adapts, and reaction to the increased tension becomes optimum. Such state is called as a positive stress. It is necessary for normal mental development of the person and adaptation to environment. But often the organism is not capable to cope with intellectual or physical overworks. In such state any additional tension can break a normal state of the person and cause an illness.
Signs:

Sleeplessness.
Apathy.
Differences of mood.
Inability to concentrate.
Impulsiveness of behavior.
Tearfulness.
Nightmares.
Hyperactivity.
Uneasiness.
Maniacal behavior.
Dependence.

Change of the relation
Why it happens?
Experts consider that any situation to which the person reacts strong emotional excitement, can become the reason of developing of a stress. It is necessary to consider that the stress can be caused as positive emotions, such as the child's birth, a marriage (marriage) and negative - work loss, death of the loved one. The situations provoking a stress can have also insignificant character (long expectation in turn or in a stopper). The stress can affect you at any time, at any age.
The stress is not an illness, but the protective mechanism but if such protection turns in chronic, the person becomes vulnerable for diseases.
In general, stresses are necessary to each person - differently he becomes lacking initiative. The stress is a peculiar power source. The main thing - not to allow it to flow in a long phase. The enemy of a human body - a prolonged stress. Foreign researchers defined percent of the diseases connected with a long stress. And it is huge - nearly 90%. The long stress reduces protective forces of an organism, increases risk of development of diabetes, cancer, tuberculosis, does harm to a fruit if the woman is pregnant - not to list all consequences. All the matter is that during a prolonged stress the organism cannot cease to develop adrenaline and энкефалин, spending for it the most part of reserves of vitamins C and In, zinc, magnesium and other minerals. It, in turn, does not allow to function normally to nervous system, reduces intellectual and physical activity
How to help itself?
To cope with a stress, it is important to set to himself the accurate tasks and to learn to lead a healthy lifestyle.
The most important weapon in fight against a stress is a control over our emotions and reactions to any irritating factor.
But if the stress everything, took unawares, it is necessary to remember and apply some simple rules.
Rule first: it is necessary to relax properly. Watch breath - try to breathe a full breast, it is desirable having opened thus a mouth (usually the person who is in a stressful state strongly grits teeth, and our task - to relax all tight muscles). Then stretch and massage a neck at least within several minutes. Finish a relaxation warming of hands hot water - sharp production of adrenaline reduced inflow of blood to extremities. Hot hands will adjust all organism on the weakened state.
Rule second: it is necessary to move. Walk, and it is even better - make small jog. Active actions will force you to distract from irritation.
Rule third: eat something tasty - that is pleasant to you. By the way, as the excellent assistant ice cream will act here. The main ingredients of ice cream - milk and cream - contain a natural tranquilizer the tryptophane which is applied in medicine at sleeplessness, a depression for stabilization of mood and reduction of sensation of fear and concern. Will help at a stress and chocolate - the assistant with production of the serotonin better known as "a happiness hormone". Plus, chocolate contains magnesium and potassium - two minerals necessary for normal functioning of muscular and nervous systems.
Rule fourth: take a bath with the calming herbs, oils or salt. It will help you to plunge into the atmosphere of comfort and tranquility. It is desirable to combine water procedures with listening of pleasant music, and after - to ask relatives to make to you massage.
Rule fifth: watch any good comedy movie. We are almost sure, such will be in a film library of everyone. Try to laugh and remain with all the heart in this mood for a long time.
And, above all - remember: it is not necessary to run from a stress - it is necessary to behave simply. After all, eventually, the stress is not that there was to us, and how we treated it. And that to help removal of symptoms of a stress, use:

1. Self-hypnosis (it is one of the best ways of removal of a stress)
2. Autogenic training   
3. Maintaining the personal diary
4. Meditation (it, perhaps, the best for removal of a stress)
5. The yoga - it promotes not only to removal of a stress, but also harmonization of an organism in general.
6. Breathing exercises
7. Games (only desktop or quiet computer - gamblings not only do not promote removal of a stress, but disturb it)
8. Sex
9. Laughter
10. Biological feedback
11. Musical therapy
12. Foot walk
13. Work in a garden or a kitchen garden
14. A time - Management or management of personal time
15. Listening of favourite music
16. Balanced food
17. Studying of technology of communication with people
18. Aromatherapy
19. Decrease in consumption of the coffee and drinks containing caffeine
20. Moderate alcohol intake (do not go too far!)
21. Green tea
22. Watching television and movies

Caution! At frequent stressful situations it is recommended to measure during the day periodically arterial pressure to prevent a hypertension. and if you suffer from a chronic stress, you need to address to the expert.

Stupor

Stupor - one of the strongest protective reactions of an organism. It comes after the strongest nervous shocks (explosion, attack, cruel violence) when the person spent so much energy for a survival that forces on contact with world around are already not present.
The stupor can last of several minutes till several o'clock. Therefore if not to give help and the victim will stay in such state long enough, it will lead to its physical exhaustion. As contact with world around is not present, the victim will not notice danger and will not take actions that to avoid it.
If it appeared nearby?

1. Minimize quantity of people around.
2. Give to the victim the chance "to exhaust" (for example, to be uttered or "beat" a pillow).
3. Charge it the work connected with high physical activity.
4. Show benevolence. Even if you do not agree with the victim, do not accuse him, and pass an opinion on its actions. Otherwise the aggressive behavior will be directed on you. It is impossible to speak: "That you for the person!". It is necessary to tell: "You awfully are angry, everything wants to carry to you into smithereens. Let's together try find a way out of this situation".
5. Try to relieve the tension ridiculous comments or actions.
6. Aggression can be extinguished by fear of punishment:
• if there is no purpose to receive benefit from aggressive behavior;
• if punishment strict and the probability of its implementation is great.
7. If not to give help to the furious person, it will lead to dangerous consequences: because of decrease in control of the actions of people will make rash acts, can put mutilations to itself and another.

Alarm

Alarm - negatively painted emotion expressing feeling of uncertainty, expectation of negative events, hard to determine presentiments. The alarm reasons usually are not realized, but it prevents participation of the person in potentially harmful behavior, or induces it to actions for increase of probability of happy end of events.
If it appeared nearby?

• It is very important to try to razgovorit the person and to understand what exactly disturbs him. In this case, perhaps, the person realizes a source of alarm and will be able to calm down.
• Often the person is anxious when he does not have information on the occurring events. In this case it is possible to try to make the plan, when where and what information it is possible to receive.
• Try to occupy the person with brainwork: to consider, write, etc. If it is keen on it, the alarm will recede.
• Physical work, house efforts too can be in the good way to calm down. If there is an opportunity, it is possible to make charging or to make jog.