WHAT TO DO PRIOR EARTHQUAKE, DURING EARTHQUAKE AND AFTER EARTHQUAKE
Simulate a situation: a major earthquake happened. Plan your escape from your job place, home, and your children’s escape from school or kindergarten. Develop for yourself and members of your family possible options: the safest places for shelter, the best place to meet each other after an earthquake, etc. This “scenario” will help you to act calm in an emergency situation.
Prepare in advance
Bag or knapsack with:
IDs and other documents;
Food and water for three days;
First-aid kit and medicines if necessary;
Torch (flashlight) and matches;
Warm clothes and footwear;
First shocks of an earthquake:
Remember: if the earthquake began – don’t panic. Switch off gas, water and electricity. If the earthquake is light, don’t be afraid, it is better to stay where you are. If the earthquake is severe (magnitude 5 or more) and you are on the second floor or higher, do not leave the room. Go to the corner of internal wall or to a doorway, at a basic column, lay down in a bathtub. Lay down under a bed, a table – they will protect you from the falling subjects and fragments. Keep away from windows and heavy furniture. Don’t use the elevator.
If you are on the street:
Go to an open place away from buildings and power lines, don’t come to the torn-off electric wires. Don’t run along buildings and do not enter them.
If you are in the car:
Stay on an open place, don’t leave the car until the shocks stop.
Remember the main reasons of human victims during an earthquake:
Torn-off electric wires
Falling of heavy subjects in the room
You will be safe if you take precautions.
After an earthquake:
Provide first aid to casualties
Release victims from blockages if it is not required special equipment
Enable the radio
If it is possible switch off a water, gas and electricity
Don’t use a fire
Be careful leaving the room you’ve been during an earthquake.
Keep the radio on!
Listen the signals of civil protection service -
"ATTENTION TO ALL!"
Keep away from the damaged buildings and don’t enter them. Be ready to aftershocks. The first two-three hours after an earthquake are the most dangerous. The aftershocks may happen in some days, weeks or months. It is known the probability of the aftershocks reduces due to the time passed since the first earthquake.
Syndrome of continuous squeezing (crash-syndrome) is the one of the most dangerous injuries. Continuous influence of heavy subjects (fragment of construction, fallen tree, massive furniture, etc.) to a hand or a leg of the injured person stops of a blood flow and causes a metabolic disorder in a human body. The amputation is a one of the consequences of a crash-syndrome.
If the injury has a syndrome of continuous squeezing: release the injury; make external survey of all his/her body; surely give him/her an anesthetic; put a tourniquet above a place of squeezing; warm him/her. Remember, there is no time to lose. Urgently take the injury to hospital, he/she needs the help of experts. You’ve made everything you could.
The full or partial collapse of the building is the emergency situation occurring due to the design, construction or repair mistakes, natural or man-made emergency situations, accidents.
The collapse can often be caused by the explosion which is a consequence of an act of terrorism, misuse of household gas pipelines, careless handling of fire, storage of flammable and explosive substances in buildings.
The collapse causes fires, destruction of power supply, ruins and blockages, injuries and victims.
Plan your actions In advance. Explain your family members their actions after collapse and first aid.
You should have a medical first-aid kit and the fire extinguisher in an available place. Keep toxic chemicals, flammable liquids and other dangerous substances in a well isolated place. Keep unused gas cylinders out of your flat. You should know the place of electric knife switches, the main gas and water taps for the emergency shutdown of electricity, gas and water.
If gas leaks, block its access to your flat, open the windows and call “Gas Service” – phone No. 04. It is strictly forbidden to use open fire, electrical switches and devices before full aeration of gas.
Do not encumber building corridors, landings, emergency and fire escapes with lumber. Keep documents, money, a torch (flashlight) and reserve batteries in a convenient place.
Building collapse. How to act.
If you hear explosion or feel that the building loses its stability, try to take documents, money and other necessities and leave it as soon as possible. Use stairs, not an elevator because it can fail at any time. Stop a panic, don’t hurry in the doorway, stop persons who are going to jump from balconies and windows of floors above the first, and also through the glazed windows. Keep away from buildings on the street, go to an open place. If you are in the building and there is no opportunity to leave it, take the safest place: the doorway and corners of main internal walls, the places under structure beams. If it is possible, hide under a table – it will protect you from the falling subjects and fragments. If there are children, cover them by yourself. Open the door from the flat to ensure your exit. Don’t panic and keep calm, encourage attendees. Keep away from windows, electric devices, shut down water, electricity and gas immediately. If fire occurs, try to stop it at once. Use your phone to call firefighters, doctors, rescuers only. Don’t go to a balcony. Don’t use matches because there can be a risk of gas leaking.
Blockage. How to act.
Breathe deeply, don’t panic, try to survive, remember help is coming. Provide first aid to yourself if necessary. Try to look for a possible exit. Try to define where you are, are there any people: listen, give a voice. Remember you can bear the thirst and hunger for a long time if you do not waste your energy. Look in pockets or nearby for subjects which could help you to give light or sound signals (for example, torch (flashlight), a pocket mirror, metal subjects to knock on a pipe or a wall. If the only way to exit is the narrow manhole, relax your muscles and move pressing your elbows to your body.
ACCIDENTS ON PUBLIC UTILITIES SYSTEMS
Accidents on public utilities systems (electrical power, drainage systems, water supply and thermal systems) seldom cause victims, however they create essential difficulties, especially in a cold season.
Accidents on electrical power system may cause long-term breaks of power supply, violation of public transport using electricity, electrical current rush.
Accidents on drainage system cause massive pollution and worsen a sanitary and epidemiologic situation.
Accidents on water supply system break providing the population with water or makes water undrinkable.
Accidents on thermal networks in a winter season lead to impossibility of accommodation of the population in not heated rooms and its compelled evacuation.
How to be prepared for accidents on municipal systems
Accidents on municipal systems are, as a rule, liquidated in the shortest possible time, however long violation of water supply, electricity, heating of rooms is not excluded. For reduction of consequences of such situations create at yourself in the house an emergency ration of matches, economic candles, dry alcohol, kerosene (in the presence in the presence of an oil lamp or a kerosene stove), batteries for electric lamps and the radio receiver.
How to operate at accidents on municipal systems
Report about accident to the dispatcher of KSK, ask to cause emergency service.
At power surges in an electric network of the apartment or its shutdown immediately disconnect all household devices, pull out forks from sockets that during your absence at sudden inclusion of electricity there was no fire. For cooking indoors use only devices of factory production: kerosene stove, kerosene stove, paraffin stove, “Bumblebee”, etc. At their absence use fire made on the street. Using economic candles and dry alcohol for lighting of the apartment, observe limit care.
At stay on the street do not come nearer closer than 5-8 meters to the torn-off or sagged wires and do not concern them. Organize protection of a place of damage, warn people around about danger and immediately report in territorial emergency department. If a wire, having broken, fell near you - leave a defeat zone current with small steps or jumps (holding a foot of feet together) to avoid defeat by step tension.
At disappearance in water system of water close all cranes opened before. For cooking use the drinking water which is available on sale, refrain from the use of water from springs and other open reservoirs before obtaining the conclusion about its safety. Remember that boiling of water destroys the majority of harmful biological impurity. For water purification use household filters, defend it within a day in open capacity, having put a silver spoon or a coin on a bottom. Also the way of water purification by “freezing” is effective. For “freezing” put capacity with water in the refrigerator freezer. At the beginning of freezing remove the top crust of ice, after half freezing of water – merge the liquid remains, and use the water formed when thawing of the received ice in food.
In case of shutdown of the central steam heating, for heating of the room use electric heaters not self-made, but only factory production. Otherwise the probability of the fire or failure of system of power supply is high. Remember that heating of the apartment by means of the gas or electric stove can lead to the tragedy. For preservation in heat close up cracks in windows and balcony doors, veil them blankets or carpets. Place all family members in one room, having temporarily closed the others. Put on more warmly and accept preventive medicines from cold and flu.